TANAPA Western Breach Protocol




1. All climbing parties should wear mountain helmets right from leaving Arrow Glacier camp until they reach the crater rim to provide head protection
2. All the climbing parties should depart Arrow Glacier camp no later than 5:00 am to be able to cross the area of most exposure within the first hour of sunrise (7:00am).
3. Guides leading groups on this route must be trained on rock fall protocol and be able to brief client and porters before they embark on the craters summit.
4. All pre-trip information to potential clients booking for Western Breach route (including website) must contain rock fall risk factor in order to seek informed consent from the clients.
All clients should be informed by their agents on the danger of rock fall on Western Breach route; thus, this will enable them to climb with the knowledge of the danger of the route.
5. Tour Companies should consider reducing the number of support staff to accompany clients during the hike from Arrow Glacier to crater rim to reduce the number of porters subjected to high risks and reduce the level of dislodging rocks in this area.
6. Every group must have at least two ice axes possibly carried by a guide to help cut steps on icy snow conditions to aid balance and stable foothold by climbers.
7. Every group must have life saving equipments, (gammov bag, oxygen cylinder, 1st aid kits) during crater summit attempt.
8. Each Tour Company should develop and implement a written emergency response plan. This is a document which will be elaborating procedures to be done in case of emergencies by both people in the field and those down in the offices in regard to responsibilities of patient care and transport so as to manage transition period from point of incidence on the mountain to the road head.
9. Porters should carry the luggage on their back using rucksacks so as to make their hands free. This will assist climbing and help them respond positively during rock fall incidences.
10. All Tour Operators must posses/carry mobile toilets during the climb to be used only in the crater. One toilet for crews and another for Clients. The human faeces or waste in crater must be conveniently deposited in pit toilets at Barafu hut. No one is allowed to leave (burry, hide, etc) human excreta inside the crater areas.




1. Following provision of radio channel by TANAPA, Tour Companies should procure and issue their staff with UHF radio handsets with rechargeable batteries in order for the guides to communicate with KINAPA rescue teams in case of emergence on the Western Breach route.
2. Tour Companies should develop and implement an effective Post Traumatic Stress Redress Programme for their staff as part of emergency response plan to help with healing support of those exposed to extreme trauma (this should include option to seek medical attention if necessary).


1. TANAPA/KINAPA will erect signboards from entry gates all over the Arrow Glacier Camp warning visitors that Western Breach Route is a danger Route that has active rock fall, and all climbing teams should observe rock fall protocols as briefed by their guides.
2. TANAPA/KINAPA will put in place a rock fall protocol and ensure that all their rescue staffs are trained on how to effectively use it to minimize exposure and how to manage rock fall during rescue activities in active rock fall areas.
3. TANAPA/KINAPA has rated this route as a wilderness trail and then fore makes it clear that their ability to respond to call of distress will be a couple of hours a way.
1. TANAPA/KINAPA will introduce a high altitude rescue station at Lava Tower to reduce turn around time of response during emergency at Western Breach.

1. TANAPA will equip all high altitude rescue stations (Kibo, Lover Tower, Millennium) with necessary rescue equipment including life supporting, (1st Aid kits, gammov bags oxygen cylinders), climbing equipment, radio and telephone communications as well as stretchers.
2. TANAPA will develop an Emergency Response Management Plan for Kilimanjaro on what to do in event of emergency, what to expect from both their rescue staff in the field and at the base as well as what to expect of tour of tour companies in regard to responsibility of patient care and transport so as to manage transition periods especially to road heads.
3. TANAPA will develop a Post Traumatic Stress Redress Protocol for their staff as part of emergency response plan to help with healing support of those rescue staff exposed to extreme trauma and to ensure full recovery before their next field.
4. TANAPA will from time to time visit Western Breach route and review on observed changes along the route. Then, feedback will be provided to all stakeholders from time to time, advises them on what measures to be taken to reduce the risks and to enable them carry out proper decision based on proper information.
5. TANAPA will provide a separate radio call channel to Tour Operators that can be used by both guides and rescue rangers during any emergency.
6. TANAPA will improve the capacity for rescue services in the park through staff recruitment, training and provision of proper and adequate rescue facilities and equipment to cater for the increasing number of tourists that are increasing every year.

1. TANAPA will develop and implement a continuous geological surveillance and monitoring program.